The Roman Republic (Latin: Res publica Romana) was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome expanded from the city of Rome itself to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century it included North Africa, Spain, and what is now southern France.
Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, Greece, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of civil wars, climaxing with the assassination of Julius Caesar, which ended with the establishment of the Roman Empire. The exact date of the transition to the Roman Empire can be a matter of interpretation. Historians have variously proposed Julius Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon River in 49 BC, Caesar's appointment as dictator for life in 44 BC, and the defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Most, however, use the same date as did the ancient Romans themselves, the Roman Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian and his adopting the title Augustus in 27 BC, as the defining event ending the Republic.
Roman Republic. L. Minucius, ca. 133 BC. AR Denarius. 19mm, 4.00gr. Obv: Helmeted head of Roma right, star (mark of value) behind. Rev: ROMA / L MINVCI. Jupiter driving quadriga right, hurling thunderbolt, holding reins and sceptre. Minucia.15. Syd. 470. Cr. 248/1. Superb coin all over. Ex Jon K. Kern Collection. NGC Ch. MS 4/5, 5/5.
Roman Republic. M. Herennius. 108-107 BC. AR Denarius, 19mm, 4.02gr. Obv. PIE(TA)S, diademed head of Pietas right, B below chin. Rev. M • (HE)RENNI , Amphinomus carrying his father on his shoulders. An exceptional coin with dark patina and rich in detail. Crawford 308/1a; Herennia 1. A great mythic example of filial piety, Amphinomus and his brothers rescued their parents from an eruption of Mount Aetna in Sicily. NGC graded Ch AU★ 5/5, 5/5.
Roman Republic, L. Memmius Galeria (106 BC) AR Denarius Serratus 106 BC (3.87g) Rome, Obv.: Laureate head of Saturn, behind, harp and ROMA, Rev.: Venus in biga right, holding sceptre and reins, above, Cupid flying, holding wreath. In exergue, L·MEMMI / GAL. Crawford 313/1a, Rainbow Patina, probably one of the finest known and very rare in this condition. NGC Choice MS★ 5/5, 5/5.
ROMAN REPUBLIC. C. Hosidius C. f. Geta. AR Denarius, 17mm, 3.72gr, ca. 64 BC. Obv. Diademed and draped bust of Diana right. Rev. Calydonian Boar right, wounded by spear and pursued by hunting dog below. Crawford 407/2; Sydenham 903; Hosidia 1. A coin with a bright and exceptional violet-blue iridescent patina. NGC graded MS★ 5/5, 5/5.